Black Squirrels

“Mom, there’s a black squirrel in the flat area.”

A black gray squirrel

A black gray squirrel (Photo by Robert Taylor on Flickr, Creative Commons license)

It was 5:30 p.m. on a balmy day in early March and my son Dave and I were fixing dinner in the kitchen.

I rushed to the window, grabbed my binoculars, and called my husband Bruce to come and see the unusual eastern gray squirrel.

In the meantime, the squirrel had climbed up the back slope and we thought it would come to our bird feeder area below our porch steps. Instead, it veered over to the far edge of my backyard herb garden beside the feeders and ran off. A few minutes later Bruce spotted it below the slope near our old springhouse before it disappeared.

During our 46 years on our mountain we had never seen a black gray squirrel, although I knew there was a population on the Penn State Altoona campus at the base of the Allegheny Front. And later, our caretaker Troy told us he had never seen any black squirrels on our Brush Mountain, the westernmost ridge in the Ridge-and-Valley Province, but he added that there was a population in a small village at the base of our mountain on the Logan Valley side.

The next time I saw the black squirrel, spring had officially arrived even though it was 17 degrees and the ground had frozen hard again. I stepped outside in the early morning and glimpsed the squirrel at the bottom of a backyard black walnut tree. Spotting me, it ran downslope to the flat area and up into the woods on Laurel Ridge.

On April 3, I again glimpsed the black squirrel in the flat area at 7:30 a.m. A gray squirrel, one of the army of 10 raiding our feeders every day, chased it back up into the woods.

Two days later, after returning from my morning walk, I stopped to admire the blooming hyacinths and daffodils in our backyard. That’s when I noticed the black squirrel crossing the flat area. I watched it through my binoculars while it searched for food beneath the leaf cover at the edge of the woods, and paused a couple times to scratch itself.

A gray squirrel approached a black squirrel

A gray squirrel approached a black squirrel (Photo by Eyesplash on Flickr, Creative Commons license)

Once a gray squirrel approached but did not chase it. Nevertheless, the black squirrel retreated but continued foraging. Next it climbed on to fallen trees, using them as runways. Once it sat up on its hindquarters and I saw that it had an orange underbelly. Then it continued slowly on its trek over to the springhouse and wetland where I lost sight of it among the cattails.

Although I continued looking for it throughout the following months, I never saw it again. I figured that a predator had caught it or that it had been visiting and had moved on. But last November one of our archery hunters saw it still living nearby.

Our black squirrel is one of three possible color phases of the eastern gray squirrel.  In Pennsylvania most eastern gray squirrels are gray, but there are also brown-black gray squirrels (our “black” squirrel) and jet black gray squirrels. Canadian researchers, writing in the Journal of Heredity in 2009, studied the color variations in the coat of the eastern gray squirrel by inspecting the hair from all three types under the microscope and found that the eastern gray squirrel “had 6 distinct hair types, compared with 4 from the brown-black and only 1 from the jet black.”

An example of a squirrel with a grizzled coat

An example of a squirrel with a grizzled coat (Photo by Eugenia Vlasova on Flickr, Creative Commons license)

“These different hair types,” they wrote, “give the gray an overall grizzled appearance with a white underbelly, the brown-black an overall dark brown appearance with an orange underbelly, and the jet black a uniform black appearance.”

Or, in the words of Dr. Carolyn Mahan, professor of biology at Penn State Altoona, “The genetic basis of this color phase was researched and determined to be a simple dominant/recessive interaction. Black color is dominant, gray is homozygous recessive, and it sounds like you have a heterozygous individual.”

A brown-black squirrel on the Penn State Altoona campus

A brown-black squirrel on the Penn State Altoona campus (Photo by Dr. Laura Palmer, used with permission)

Mahan adds that the brown/black squirrels have been on the campus at least since 1999 when she began teaching there. She says that, “It is not that they ‘arrived’ there. It is just that the allele [one of a group of genes that occur alternately at a place] for the black color is present in that population. It seems that most of the ‘black’ squirrels are heterozygous for the trait so, if you look at them in bright sunlight, they appear dark dark brown. It seems on our campus there are an equal number of gray and black squirrels.”

Scientific descriptions aside, black gray squirrels are more common farther north while gray squirrels dominate southern areas in the eastern United States and Canada.

Some researchers believe that before Europeans arrived in North America, black gray squirrels were predominant throughout eastern North America because forests were old and thick and provided better cover for that color phase. But once the forests were cut, they hypothesize, gray squirrels became the dominant type throughout their range.

A black gray squirrel in Canada

A black gray squirrel in Canada (Photo by DaPuglet on Flickr, Creative Commons license)

Another, earlier study in Canada in 1978, where black gray squirrels dominate, found that they had “significantly lower heat loss” than gray squirrels during the winter which they thought explained why black gray squirrels were common where winters were colder and there was a constant snow cover despite the fact that a black coat would not provide camouflage for them in a white world.

Native black gray squirrels live in Ontario and Quebec and northern Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota and Pennsylvania. But there have been so many releases of these squirrels both in the United States and England, usually courtesy of Ontario, that it is difficult to sort the naturally occurring from the released ones.

In Britain they were released at the end of the 19th century and 18 from Canada arrived at the National Zoo during Teddy Roosevelt’s presidency. Canada also sent 10 to Kent, Ohio in 1961.

The home of the black squirrels, Marysville, Kansas

The home of the black squirrels, Marysville, Kansas (Photo by Jimmy Emerson, DVM, on Flickr, Creative Commons license)

Strangest of all is the so-called “Home of the Black Squirrels” out in the plains in Marysville, Kansas. Supposedly the squirrels escaped from a traveling circus or maybe a gypsy encampment in the late 1920s. Marysville even holds an annual Black Squirrel Celebration.

The black squirrels in Washington, D.C. have spread over the city, and they’ve done the same in other towns and cities where they were released. Apparently, they are safer from their predators, which are primarily birds of prey. And squirrel hunters, eager to bag a black gray squirrel, cannot shoot them in such places.

I checked a couple online sources regarding black gray squirrels in Pennsylvania and compiled a list of cities and towns where black squirrels live such as Fairmont Park in Philadelphia, the Haverford College campus, which has so many that they’ve adopted Black Squirrels as their sports mascot, and the eastern suburbs of Pittsburgh.

A.D. Plummer, who says he hunts and fishes every day in central Pennsylvania, according to the Answers section of the Field and Stream website, claimed he had never seen a black squirrel there until 2009 when he saw two in two places 30 miles apart.

A brown-black squirrel photographed in Goddard Park, Chester County, PA

A brown-black squirrel photographed in Goddard Park, Chester County, PA (Photo by Brian Henderson on Flickr, Creative Commons license)

This provoked several more comments over the next few years. S. Testy, who lives in Enola, Cumberland County, also in central Pennsylvania, wrote in 2009, “There’s a pak of black squirrels that live on Valley Road and North Enola Drive…I’ve seen several out at one time.”

M.J. Frazier in 2012 reported from western Pennsylvania that a small colony nested in their neighborhood and liked bird seeds but stayed away from the gray squirrels.

“The squirrels are solid black and look very kinetic as they move about,” Frazier reported. “They will not come to the feeder close to the house [which probably explains why ‘our’ black squirrel ignored our feeders], but [to] one in the yard about 30 yards away which is stocked with black oil sunflower seeds.”

Rudy Glove, writing in 2015, added “Black squirrels everywhere now.’

Well, not quite everywhere. On the website in answer to a hunter’s question about where he can find black squirrels, it looks as if the largest numbers still live in the wild across the northern tier of the commonwealth.

One hunter found black squirrels scattered in five different locations over four counties—Lycoming, Clinton, Potter and Tioga.

Another reported three blacks to one gray in Cook Forest, Clarion County, adding that one day he counted five different black squirrels.

Several were seen near Dubois in Clearfield County and a couple hunters claimed they were common near Kinzua Dam in the Allegheny National Forest. Two hunters mentioned Pike County in northeastern Pennsylvania, and another Brookville in Jefferson County near Treasure Lake.

Whether all these squirrels were coal black, brown-black, or both is not clear except for those reported by M.J. Frazier, but S. Testy does question articles that say only one gray squirrel in 10,000 is black and suspects, at least here in Pennsylvania, that that is a low estimate.



July, like January, is the most extreme month of its season, and during both months I must adapt to challenging weather if I want to walk our trails and observe wildlife.

Black birches in the forest of Plummer’s Hollow

Black birches in the forest of Plummer’s Hollow (Photo by Dave Bonta on Flickr)

In January, when the wind is howling and it’s ten degrees Fahrenheit, I wait until mid-morning to venture outside swathed in several layers of clothes.

In July I try to be abroad by 8:30 a.m. dressed in as little as possible. That used to mean shorts and a tank top, but since ticks arrived on our mountain, I pull on long, beige-colored, Permethrin-soaked pants, which I tuck into light-colored socks, and a long-sleeved shirt over a tank top. Then, I put a wide-brimmed hat over my short hair and I’m off.

But last July the heat and humidity on many days was more debilitating than usual. Even 8:30 was too late on many July days for someone as heat-averse as I am.

The morning sun through the fog over the First Field

The morning sun through the fog over the First Field (Photo by Dave Bonta on Flickr)

We’ve been told that humans, plants, and wildlife must adjust to our changing climate. In that spirit my husband Bruce suggested I get up at 5:00 a.m., grab a cup of coffee, and go, instead of rising an hour later, preparing and eating breakfast, and following my normal hour of back and neck exercises before venturing outside.

That’s how I became a connoisseur of sunrises. Most dawns I rushed the quarter mile up to the spruce grove and Alan’s Bench at the top of Sapsucker Ridge. One morning the sky was golden and lit up the trees along the trail. On another, a rosy-fingered dawn predicted a clear, hot day ahead.

Near the end of July I watched the sky turn from gold to rose and finally pink before I reached Alan’s Bench. A sudden light flashed on the horizon as the sun appeared over Nittany Mountain, heralded by the drumbeat of a pileated woodpecker and the “witchedy, witchedy” of a common yellowthroat. As soon as it crested the mountain, I looked away from that burning eye that makes life on earth possible.

An ovenbird in Chester County, PA

An ovenbird in Chester County, PA (Photo by Kelly Colgan Azar in Flickr, Creative Commons license)

Instead, I sought the sanctuary of the forest as it filtered the fierce light through its green film of leaves.

Although birdsong dwindles in July, I listened to the dawn singing and calling of ovenbirds, red-eyed vireos, scarlet tanagers, eastern towhees, Acadian flycatchers, eastern wood-pewees, hooded and black-throated green warblers in the forest and common yellowthroats, song and field sparrows, indigo buntings, northern cardinals, Carolina wrens, cedar waxwings, and gray catbirds in the fields and yard.

One charmed morning I was serenaded by a chorus of wood thrushes as I walked down our road. The thrush music echoed in the outdoor cathedral of hundred-year-old trees looming overhead. I gave a silent prayer of thanks for their songs and hoped I would live to hear them another year. (I will embed a brief YouTube video of a singing wood thrush.)

On that same dawn walk I startled two does and two fawns that were standing in our stream. The fawns disappeared up the road bank while the does remained watching me for a few seconds before following their offspring.

A black rat snake

A black rat snake (Photo by Tom Walsh in Wikimedia, Creative Commons license)

I also found a black rat snake sprawled across the road. At first I thought it was dead, but as I stood above it and suggested it get off the road, it twitched its tail and curled up, looking as fierce as it could manage. I stepped carefully around it and continued on my way. Later, after the sun’s red disk shone through the trees and I retraced my steps, the snake had vanished.

Not all days were steamy. Early in the month, I devoted several cooler mornings to taking our 11-year-old granddaughter Elanor on our longer trails, several of which she had never hiked, before she and her parents set off for new lives in Arizona. I didn’t want her to forget the green lushness of a Pennsylvania summer. On one such walk, several almost grown turkey poults flew up in front of us. On another I pointed out blooming rhododendron, wild hydrangea, wood nettle and black cohosh along the road.

But Elanor was most impressed by the abundance of baby cottontail rabbits and adults in our yard, especially one attracted to our veranda. In fact, its cement floor proved to be alluring to a variety of small mammals including chipmunks that seemed affronted by Bruce and my sedentary presence on the veranda.

A long-tailed weasel

A long-tailed weasel (Photo by Bryant Olsen on Flickr, Creative Commons license)

We grew accustomed to sitting on our veranda chairs without speaking or moving as rabbits and chipmunks crept closer and closer. One morning, after I returned from my walk at 6:30, we sat there silently gazing at First Field. A long-tailed weasel emerged from beneath a forsythia bush next to the veranda and started toward the chipmunk burrow in the lawn at the far end of the veranda. When I turned to Bruce to see if he noticed the weasel, it dashed back the way it had come.

We remained silent, and a few seconds later, it ran on to the end of the veranda. Again I turned to Bruce and again the weasel retraced its steps. This time it didn’t come back. Bruce didn’t see it either time, but I even glimpsed its white underparts the second time around. This happened the day after my birthday, and I was grateful for my belated gift of a brief moment with an elusive creature.

Four eastern phoebe chicks in their nest

Four eastern phoebe chicks in their nest (Photo by jeffreyw on Flickr, Creative Commons license)

On our front porch a pair of eastern phoebes had built their second nest. One early July evening, while Elanor was eating dinner with us on the porch, the four nestlings became four fledglings as one after the other flew over our heads chirping.

Even our back porch was attractive to wildlife. One night I left a planter of house plants I had washed out on the porch to dry. The next morning I found a hole dug in the dirt and muddy raccoon prints on the porch floor.

And of course we had our usual bear sightings. Early in the month our son Steve, driving up our road in the afternoon, had a young cub run in front of his car halfway up the mountain. Near the end of the month, as I reached the top of Sapsucker Ridge, I heard a crash from a tree and caught a glimpse of a bear running downslope toward the interstate.

These glimpses I have of the lives of wild animals and birds are often tantalizing and sometimes I can only guess at their intentions. But I did solve one mystery and its perpetrators.

Norway spruce cones, including one in the lower right on which part of the cone scales have been removed

Norway spruce cones, including one in the lower right on which part of the cone scales have been removed (Photo from the Plant Image Library in Flickr, Creative Commons license)

One hot, humid morning inside the Norway spruce grove, I noticed dozens of still-immature spruce cones that had been clipped from the tops of the tallest trees and stripped of their overlapping cone scales. The scales lay in golden-beige heaps at the base of the trees.

Never before had I seen this even though the trees have had mature cones for years. But the acorn crop had failed for two years and I suspected hungry gray squirrels were after the two seeds at the base of each scale. Fourteen days later I spotted a gray squirrel climbing up a cone-laden spruce tree, proving to my satisfaction that they were producing the piles and scatterings of diamond-shaped cone scales throughout the grove.

Later, I read in North American Tree Squirrels by Michael A. Steele and John L. Koprowski about a study they did in North Carolina of longleaf pine cones. They found that even though the cones of most conifers don’t fully mature until October, they are already nutritious by late July when squirrels sometimes have little else to eat. The North Carolina fox squirrels stripped the longleaf cones the same way our gray squirrels had stripped the Norway spruce cones, by starting at the bottom of a cone and rotating it like an ear of corn as it gnawed off one cone scale at a time.

At the end of the month, after a much-awaited rainstorm the previous evening, I walked Laurel Ridge Trail listening to the same but much quieter suite of singing birds—scarlet tanager, eastern wood-pewee, and red-eyed vireo. I picked up a bird’s nest lined with thin stems and plastered with lichens. The exquisite little nest had blown from a high tree branch in the storm and had been constructed by an eastern wood-pewee.

Later, as I approached our yard, I noticed a male American goldfinch crying on and on from our electric line. Then a large raptor lifted off a yard tree and landed on a low black walnut branch. It was an immature Cooper’s hawk still peering around in search of prey and providing a close look at the white streaks above its eyes and its reddish breast and belly.

As soon as the hawk flew off, the goldfinch was quiet, and a gray catbird and several other birds began calling as if giving an all-clear signal.

July may often be an uncomfortable month to be outside, but my many glimpses of wildlife make every sweaty, buggy walk worth the effort.



The Gifts of May

Spring is my favorite season and May my favorite month. To me, beginnings are always more thrilling than endings and comings more wonderful than goings as I experience all the excitement of new and resurrecting life—the returning of birds, the blooming of wildflowers, trees and shrubs, and the newborn fawns, bear cubs, and other mammals.

A scarlet tanager in Chester County, PA, on May 14, 2014 (Photo by Kelly Colgan Azar, on Flickr, Creative Commons license)

A scarlet tanager in Chester County, PA, on May 14, 2014 (Photo by Kelly Colgan Azar, on Flickr, Creative Commons license)

May gives me these and other gifts every spring when I welcome back scarlet tanagers, wood thrushes, Acadian flycatchers, worm-eating warblers and all the other part-time bird residents of our Appalachian forest as they return from incredible journeys to once again court, mate and raise their families.

My May journal is filled with bird sightings and songs. Most are expected, old friends. Others are less familiar or less common on our property and are passing though in search of their particular habitat, for instance, the yellow warbler last May 24, which likes early successional lowland habitat and was singing in our remaining elm tree beside our access road.

A northern harrier hovering over potential prey (Photo by Don on Wikimedia, Creative Commons license)

A northern harrier hovering over potential prey (Photo by Don on Wikimedia, Creative Commons license)

Another surprise, two days later, was a female northern harrier that coursed low over our overgrown First Field, occasionally dropping into the grasses but coming up empty. Once an American crow flew at her when she was on the ground but was quickly routed. It was a treat to watch as she dipped and swayed over the field, her white searchlight bright above her tail, which flared to expose its black and white stripes.

As I walked down the driveway for a closer look, she easily maneuvered through the black locust trees along Butterfly Loop, 50 feet or so above the ground, before disappearing from view. Sometimes I see northern harriers here in fall or winter, but never in spring because, as a denizen of large, open fields, she, like the yellow warbler, breeds in the nearby valleys and was only a visitor.

A rose-breasted grosbeak (Photo by John Harrison in Wikimedia, Creative Commons license)

A rose-breasted grosbeak (Photo by John Harrison in Wikimedia, Creative Commons license)

Still another bird species, the lovely white-crowned sparrow, visits us and appears in the spring only when our dandelions go to seed, even though its habitat—brush, forest edges, and thickets—is plentiful here. On May 3, I was treated to the sight of a pair of white-crowned sparrows hanging out in our backyard with two gorgeous male rose-breasted grosbeaks and the sparrow-like brown and white of a female grosbeak. Although the grosbeaks breed on our mountain, they are rarely seen. It was a special gift of May for me to see two such striking birds together.

Then there is the inevitable mystery bird. Late on a lovely May 20th afternoon, I sat on our veranda, binoculars in hand. I heard what sounded like a partial Baltimore oriole song and found the singer up in a black walnut tree. It looked like an oriole and was yellow with white wing bars and a black face and neck. It turned out to be a first year male orchard oriole. I had been puzzled because I had only seen the adult male orchard oriole here a couple times in 45 years and they have dark chestnut rumps and breasts and black heads, necks, backs, and tails.

An orchard oriole in Chester County, PA (Photo by Kelly Colgan Azar on Flickr, Creative Commons license)

An orchard oriole in Chester County, PA (Photo by Kelly Colgan Azar on Flickr, Creative Commons license)

But a quick look at the oriole pages in my Peterson field guide and I had identified the mystery bird. It too had strayed from its usual valley habitat of floodplains, marshes, the shorelines of large rivers and scattered trees, or along streams as well as open farmland.

According to the Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in Pennsylvania, although orchard orioles only spend three months of the year here, they are continuing a remarkable northward expansion in the commonwealth along river valleys and now are found in varying numbers nearly statewide. But in our county—Blair—they were only noted in small numbers in the farm valleys.

A sharp-shinned hawk with prey under foot (Photo by Abdoozy on Wikimedia, Creative Commons license)

A sharp-shinned hawk with prey under foot (Photo by Abdoozy on Wikimedia, Creative Commons license)

Personalities of birds vary widely as I discovered last May. As I approached the back of the spruce grove on May 23, a sharp-shinned hawk sitting in a black locust tree near the grove began calling loudly and then flew low and directly toward my head, veering off at the last minute and then landing on a nearby branch.

The following day it was even more aggressive, diving at me a couple times when I tried to enter Sapsucker Ridge Trail near the grove. For five years sharpies had raised young in our spruce grove and never were aggressive even when I walked through the grove. Usually, one parent or the other would be sitting and watching on a locust tree, and when I approached would call quietly as a warning to the other parent on the nest.

Then there had been a year without sharpies nesting in the grove. This aggressive one could have been an offspring because those sharpies always were successful raising a family as I discovered every August when their fledged young screamed for food from the tops of the spruces for a week or so before flying off to catch food on their own. Surprisingly, despite the aggression of this new sharpie, I heard no such proof of nesting success last August.

A black bear at a pond in West Virginia, April 21, 2010 (Photo by ForestWander in Wikimedia, Creative Commons license)

A black bear at a pond in West Virginia, April 21, 2010 (Photo by ForestWander in Wikimedia, Creative Commons license)

Still, because of that “crazy” sharpie, I walked off-trail through the woods to avoid the bird instead of taking my usual trail near the back of the grove to the vernal pond. As I approached the pond, I spotted a black bear walking slowly away from me, his butt still wet from his wallow in the water.

I froze and watched as he shook himself like a dog and then meandered slowly to a patch of evergreen wood ferns where he nosed around for a few minutes. Next he plodded to a nearby tree and stretched up to rub his back and scent over its trunk.

Suddenly, he turned and peered in my direction. I remained still and quiet, and he turned away and continued his slow walk until he was out of sight.

Once he was gone, I was able to track his wet steps out of the pond and over to the fern patch. I never did figure out what he was looking for. I had assumed food, but perhaps he had scented a male rival or a possible female mate, hence his back-rubbing. I only wished that I had arrived a little sooner and seen him paddling in the pond. Nevertheless, it is always a thrill to watch a bear that isn’t aware of my presence and going about his bear business.

Wood frog tadpoles (Photo by Brian Gratwicke on Flickr, Creative Commons license)

Wood frog tadpoles (Photo by Brian Gratwicke on Flickr, Creative Commons license)

I had gone, as I do most spring days, to the vernal pond to keep track of the wood frogs. As I had written in my March column, last spring all had gone exceptionally well for the wood frogs. But in April the expected rains didn’t come. Day by day, I watched as the pond slowly dried up. But the end of April I found only a few tiny puddles and a few wood frog tadpoles fighting for life. Once again the wood frogs had lost their gamble—or so I thought.

Then came the rains of early May. On the twelfth, it finally cleared by mid-afternoon, and I took my usual walk up First Field Trail where a ruffed grouse performed her broken wing act, on to the Far Field Road and Coyote Bench, where I was serenaded by red-eyed vireos, scarlet tanagers and American redstarts, and over to the vernal pond area to see if it had refilled. But first I paused to admire the spreading patch of still-blooming spring beauties near the pond.

With a heavy heart, I approached the vernal pond and blinked. It was seething with wood frog tadpoles, a veritable tadpole soup. How was it possible?

I contacted Dr. Jim Julian, assistant professor of biology at Penn State Altoona. He specializes in herpetology and years ago gave my husband Bruce and me a tour of the vernal ponds at the Scotia game lands (SGL#176). He told me that he had “seen wood frog tadpoles survive in really wet/soupy mud for a couple days. While they use their gills to get oxygen from the water, they’re using their skin for respiration also, [which] is probably why they can live for a while after the ponds dry.”

So, mystery solved, but still such a recovery seemed almost miraculous to me and still another priceless gift from last May.


Coyote America, by Dan Flores

Here is a review of the book Coyote America which I wrote for the November/December 2016 issue of The Gnatcatcher, published by the Juniata Valley Audubon Society:

If you, like me, are a fan of coyotes, this book will both delight and sicken you.  Subtitled A Natural and Supernatural History, Flores covers every aspect of coyotes’ lives, present and past, the Native American fables and stories that feature Coyote, and the western settlers as well as present day Americans’ approach to these amazing and resilient creatures.

coyote-america-coverTheir story begins in the American Southwest 3.2 million years ago when coyotes split from gray wolves.  While wolves crossed into Asia and Europe, coyotes remained here and eventually became the heroes of Indian folk tales.

Early American explorers called them “prairie wolves” and seemed to admire them.  But the farmers, ranchers, and hunters of the late nineteenth century demonized them along with larger predators such as wolves.

Our “Hundred Years War,” as Flores calls it, against these animals, has been subsidized by taxpayers beginning in the early twentieth century up to the present day.  Unlike wolves, which are pack animals and were easy to kill with poison bait, coyotes are known for what scientists call their “fission-fusion” adaptations in which they can be either pack or solitary animals, depending on outside pressures and are not as easily drawn into bait.

Despite killing more than six and a half million coyotes from 1945 to 1971, the Animal Control Board, renamed the Division of Wildlife Services in 1997, under the Department of Agriculture, has continued their war against coyotes, most recently killing 512,710 coyotes from 2006 to 2011. But coyotes can adjust their population, having as many as 20 pups if they are persecuted or as few as two if they are not.

They also began their incredible expansion to the East and as far north as Anchorage, Alaska and lately have discovered the safest places to live are cities where they are not hunted and there is plenty of food.  So while a coyote requires 10 square miles of territory in the country, it only needs 3 square miles in a city.

Flores covers the many human heroes in Coyote America as well as the villains.  Mammalogists such as Olaus and Adolph Murie, who studied coyotes in Jackson Hole, Wyoming and Yellowstone back in the 1930s.  Olaus concluded that coyotes were not arch predators of game animals but omnivorous generalists that mostly ate mice, gophers, and hares and that only fed on elk carcasses.  Adolph agreed and added grasshoppers and crickets to their diet as well as the weakest mule deer fawns and antelopes.  But coyotes are opportunists and in the cities they not only prey on the occasional pet, especially cats, but they also eat the eggs and young of Canada geese and white-tailed deer fawns.

Still, despite the championing by informed mammalogists, the killing continued unabated.  It took an unlikely person, namely Walt Disney, to begin a sympathetic portrayal of coyotes that reached the general public.  In 1961 Walt Disney’s Wonderful World of Color ran a six-part series entitled “The Coyote’s Lament.”  At the time federal poisoners, bounty hunters and state trappers were killing between 250,000 and 300,000 coyotes a year.  Disney ended his series with, “When the time comes when you can’t hear the song of the coyote, the West is going to seem a mighty dull place.”

Since then more and more people are opposed to the war on coyotes.  Still, that war has brought bigger coyotes to the East.  Scientists now claim, based on genetic studies, that coyote hybridization with gray wolves began 550 to 950 years ago in the Great Lakes region and have resulted in as much as 20% wolf genes in Great Lakes’ coyotes and 40% in Ontario’s Algonquin Provincial Park.  They also claim that the South’s red wolves are a hybrid of southern gray wolves and coyotes that began 290 to 430 years ago.

And so the coyote, fact and legend, has become larger than life.  As we know here in Pennsylvania our so-called eastern coyotes are bigger than those of the West.  They continue to evolve and adapt to us and our ways.  For instance, studies of urban coyotes find that fewer and fewer are killed by cars every year.

But, as Flores wonders, will we adapt to them, stop killing them and allow their populations to stabilize?